To rethink the outcomes of human environmental interactions over the past three energy regimes on the present-day landscape in Europe, in order to inform future energy transitions from a long-term environmental and social perspective.

  1. Modelling land cover change in Europe over the current and previous energy regimes (ESR 7)
  2. Macro-scale perspectives on past and potential future megafaunas across Europe and their ecological impacts (ESR 8)
  3. Modelling and characterization of climate, environment and human impact during the four energy regimes (ESR 9)
  4. Trade-offs between culture and nature in landscape development (ESR 10)